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    Kerch, the Imperial barrow, Adzhimushkaj, Eltigen

    Kerch - populous enough, unusually big (sprawling) and not similar on what Crimean a city-hard worker. Extensive city lands are located along Kerch strait: the historical central part of a city adjoins port (to one of the most ancient in the world), and some settlements have arisen in XIX - the XX-th centuries at the large industrial enterprises: Arshintsevo, Vojkovo. Already on border of Europe and Asia there is a Port Crimea.

    In general for Kerch inhabited quarters and the whole microdistricts by trades are characteristic: ship builders, metallurgists, fishermen, seamen zagranplavanija. The Most part of the industry of Kerch is now stopped, for an environment it only on advantage. But here a certain drowsy condition of tourist and resort business yet very much pleases, though potential at a city simply improbable.

    Already on entrance to a historical part of a city, directly on road service station amazes a massive barrow of Scythian times. It is called by name the nearest rivulet of Melek-chesme (the Angelic fountain, in any way this name does not match a concrete ditch on which flows down to the sea not bleshchushchaja cleanliness vodichka). In a melek-Chesmensky barrow , as well as in several others jeweller ornaments and the precious weapon of Scythians making till now the main property of a gold pantry of a museum the Hermitage in St.-Petersburg are found.

    Well and here on Kerchensky road service station it is simply entertaining detail of a transport ring … it is possible to Examine only a closed input in an underground tomb.

    The Main mountain towering over Kerch bears a name pontijskogo the tsar Mitridata of VI Evpatora (132-63 BC), owning the countries on both coast of Black sea and seriously resisting to the power of Roman empire. On this mountain besieged by enemies, it has accepted poison. But before, many years it, being afraid of a poisoning, accepted gradually different poisons so the death has not come and then the tsar has ordered to the chief of bodyguard to pin up it. TSitseron, having learnt about  destruction of Mitridata VI, named it "ёрь№ь great of the lords with whom Rome conducted sometime тющэ№".

    Wars then still was more than enough. Great Patriotic War events are embodied in obshcheizuchennoj in due time without fail to "the Small Earth" by L.I.Brezhnev . It has given to Kerch the status of a hero town that has allowed to embellish a little its big cultural and sports complexes.

    The Bosporsky kingdom which has arisen on coast of Kerch strait 26 centuries ago, coped tsars of Thracian dynasties. For survey of tourists the part of excavation on a grief Mitridat where there was a capital - Panticapaeum , and excavation of the subordinated cities is prepared only: Tiritaka, Nimfej, Ilurat and others are only designated by security signs. On mountain the majestic ladder constructed in the middle of a XIX-th century by a local merchant-patron of art, and recently updated and decorated with again stone griffins conducts. At ladder bottom in a special premise the model a crypt the Ancient Greek goddess by Demetry with unique frescos is created.

    The Temple John Predtechi – unique from the monuments of the architecture which have remained since the period of blossoming of the Tmutarakansky princedom (X–XI centuries).

    The Church represents graceful chetyrehstolpnyj a krestovo-dome temple with a unique dome on a high drum. Very much narjadna a classical Byzantian laying from the big blocks white tesanogo limestone and a red thin brick. It looks in a modern way clever, prudent – after all looks remarkably, and some plaster or painting does not demand! The combination of various forms gives kerchenskoj churches originality and a sharpness, it will not confuse with any another: here two architectural systems – bazilikalnaja and krestovo-dome are as though connected.

    Near to John Predtechi's church in the street Bosporus has taken places Sea institute (JUgNIRO) in which museum the richest collection of flora and fauna of the Azovo-Black Sea pool, Indian ocean, Atlantic and Subarctic region is presented.

    the Istoriko-archaeological museum (street Soviet, 22, bodies. 20 475) - one of the oldest museums of the Russian empire. It is created in 1826г. As an antiquity Museum. The archeological finds received at the first archeological excavations which have been undertaken in 1816-1817 by Polem Dobroksom, the Frenchman consisting on the Russian service became its exhibits.

    Today is more than 130 thousand exhibits. The museum has remarkable archaeological collections, unique meeting of lapidary monuments of world value. The original stone annals total about two thousand stone stel and gravestones.

    In 1988г. The museum has been transformed by the government of Ukraine to the State historical and cultural memorial estate in which, except an istoriko-archaeological museum, the Museum of history of defence of Adzhimushkajsky stone quarries, an art gallery, the Museum of history of the Eltigensky landing enter.

    Kerchensky historical and cultural memorial estate (street Sverdlova, 7) 2-11-42

    • the Museum "+фцшьѕ°ърщёъшх ърьхэюыюьэш" 5-40-01
    • the Imperial barrow, settlement Adzhimushkaj 5-47-13
    • the Art gallery — street Theatrical, 33, ph. 22 086.

    The art exhibition is constantly exhibited At an art gallery and sketches of the winner of the State award of Ukraine of T.G.Shevchenko N.J.Buta numbering about hundred cloths, the fighters of underground Adzhimushkaja devoted to courage and heroes "¦рыющ чхьыш".

    " the Gold pantry " In the City Day on September, 18th kerchane and visitors can see things from the precious metals, arrived in Kerchensky State historical and cultural reserve for last quarter 20 and the beginnings of 21 centuries. Basically it is archeology subjects as they cause the greatest interest. The most interesting treasure found in 2003 on a site of ancient settlement of Mirmeky became a collection ornament. By the way, this treasure in the near future, it agree contracts, becomes the central exhibit at an exhibition in the Hermitage, devoted to coins-kizikinam.

    At an exposition there are also other interesting Pantikapejsky and Bosporsky coins - gold and silver which will be shown for the first time general public. Complexes of jeweller ornaments are separately collected: earrings, bracelets, a beads, the rings dated from IV in BC to V century d.C.

    Considering that exhibition opening is dated for the City Day, shown and a little prophetic, connected with military history: awards of participants of heroic defence of Adzhimushkajsky stone quarries - the award weapon of major general B. N.Arshintseva, which name is known to all townspeople, an award by which Grigory Burmin, the second head adzhimushkajskoj defences, Nikolay Danchenko's award, three awards of glory of Fastovicha, and others has been awarded. These things will be interesting to the spectator from the different points of view not only as jeweller ornaments and nagradnye signs, - they set thinking.

    Phones and the information:

    • the Code of international telecommunication +38 06561
    • Gorspravka 2-11-32
    • Militia - 02; 20411
    • the State traffic inspectorate (GAI) — 21238
    • the First help — 03; 20203
    • Saving water station — 24725, 32043.
    • the Urgent narcological help — 37917.
    • Saving water station 2-47-25, 3-20-43

    Vicinities.

    On the western suburb of Kerch at highway Kerch — Feodosiya on a hill in height about 100 m is the Gold barrow . Originally the barrow height made 15 — 16 m, the barrow has been imposed by enormous stone blocks.

    In the twenties XIX century the Russian general Rosenberg, probably, hoping, something to find, has blown up barrow top. In 1832 during excavation in the western part of a barrow two crypts plundered still in the ancient time have been found out.

    In 1853 — 1854 one more has been found out – too plundered – a crypt. Subsequently the barrow, the crypts opened in it, a stone facing were actively taken away and even are transformed into a stone quarry.

    By 70th years of the last century the barrow almost has been completely destroyed, fragments of monumental facing have escaped only.

    There is an assumption that the barrow occurs still with kimmerijskih (I thousand BC) times or even earlier (arianskih) times – III thousand BC

    the Imperial barrow r aspolozhen on a southwest slope of a hilly ridge in 5 km from the centre of Kerch on settlement Adzhimushkaj suburb. Here it is possible to reach from road service station by the bus (route N 4). The height us y pi a barrow before excavation made 18 m, a circle on a sole - 250 m.

    To urgan consists from dromosa (an input with very original arch consisting of in steps narrowed laying of calcareous blocks) in length of 36 m, the funeral chamber (4,39х4,35 and embankments. The funeral chamber is built on podtesannoj to a rock. After podteski the artificial basis from the clay mixed with calcareous shchebenkoj is erected. The funeral chamber almost square in the plan. Its socle is cut from a monolithic rock, and further there are quadras carefully driven to each other with smoothly processed surface. Walls consist of 10 numbers, at level they gradually pass 5 numbers to a circle, and all chamber comes to the end with an ustupchato-ring dome. The dome consists from gradually decreasing 12 in diameter of the concentric rings blocked from above by a plate.

    The Strict and simple design looks very effective, but unusual to an eye. The thought on aliens arises by itself so anything surprising is not present, that a dome and leaving on a surface dromos are embodied in sovetski fantastic films.

    The crypt Floor is paved by plates, the height of the chamber of 8,84 m. the Entrance aperture is from a South side, its ledged top part "runs" into a dome. In the bottom part of an input a threshold and three steps, since. Floor level dromosa below level of a floor of the chamber on 0,8 m. of Dromos, length 36 m and width 2,8 m, has the ledged arch.

    In many places on tomb walls traces of tools by which the stone was extracted and processed are visible. Walls dromosa, its step arch, walls and a chamber dome have small rectangular grooves from beams and rasporok which builders used at a crypt construction. After building end all nests have been put by the stone "stoppers" which have remained in several places. On distance of 8,5 m from an input in dromos rust on walls is absent. It corresponds to A.B.Ashika's diary record which mentions the cross-section wall blocking an input in dromos. All design of the Imperial barrow has been blocked by an embankment consisting of several layers. The first layer consisted from large butovyh stones, further there were layers of clay with linings from seaweed. Clay was blocked by a layer small buga, covered with earth. Such structure of an embankment protected it from washing out by an atmospheric precipitation and from landslips.

    The Imperial barrow has appeared completely plundered still in the ancient time. In it the rests of a wooden sarcophagus have remained only. Level of execution of a tomb, undoubtedly, best architects of Bospora, gives the chance to assume that it intended for one of the most representative bosporskih tsars of IV century BC It is supposed that Levkon I (389 here could be buried - 349 BC), at which Bospor has reached power and economic blossoming. From here and the name of this burial "Imperial barrow".

    In the first centuries there was a course from the arch dromosa in the funeral chamber. On a line of this course on walls crosses and drawings of the various form are found out. Under V.F.Gajdukevicha's assumption, escaping from persecutions, in a barrow crypt has found a refuge and the first Christian community on Bospore, and later a manhole has arranged a place for prayers has been filled up and forgotten.

    Adzhimushkajsky stone quarries blizi Kerch – one of the most drama monuments of times of the Great Patriotic War. From a communal grave the guerrilla on the east is stretched a hollow which southern part is clearly allocated with bulks of rocks, vzdyblennyh explosions of huge force. The Big (central) stone quarries Here originate. To the north from a hollow there are Small stone quarries. On their surface stela with an inscription that in these stone quarries in the end of 1941 the guerrilla group of V.I.Lenin battled against fascist aggressors. At the beginning of a hollow a well of "sweet water", the fighting activity which was in an initial stage of garrison by a water supply source.

    170 days and nights soldiers of underground garrison battled. Heroic defence of Adzhimushkajsky stone quarries – an unprecedented feat of the Soviet soldiers during the Great Patriotic War.

    In 1989 on a place of the Adzhimushkajsky ditch the monument is opened. Here by summer of 1942 it is shot 2269 inhabitants and the Soviet prisoners of war.

    On the south from Kerch along coast of Kerch strait golden beaches and inhabited quarters of settlement Geroevsky are located. One-storeyed houses last lengthways exhausting approximately on 5 km. Besides along beaches some boarding houses are located. Pleasant feature for Russians is that from a beach the Russian coast – the peninsula Taman sung by Lermontov is almost always perfectly visible. In his time Taman was rather boring and melancholy place, but now a certain frontier revival there reigns. Taman it is interesting also by constant opening of archeologists. During antique and medieval times it made natural continuation of Kerch, and the slavic princedom of Tmutarakan also settled down on both coast of passage.

    From the centre of Kerch in the beginning it is necessary to arrive to microdistrict Arshintsevo, and then by trip buses or minibuses on a beach of Geroevki.

    Earlier small village carried krymskotatarskoe the name of Eltigen that wonderfully it is possible to translate also as "edge of heroes".

    Eltigen has become history of the Great Patriotic War, thanks to improbable courage of commandoes. At carrying out of Kerchensko-Feodosijsky operation in storm night for November, 1st, 1943 at the fishing settlement carrying the name of Eltigen, the sea landing which has grasped on the bank of small base which has become history of war under the name "+уэхээр  чхьы " has landed;. This Earth really was "юуэхээющ": small landing "я =рёюъ" was exposed to fire through. But, having earthed, eltagentsy forty days and kept nights almost, beating off at times on ten and more attacks in day. Distracting on itself great strengths of the opponent, they have facilitated disembarkation of the basic forces of a landing. Eltigentsev fighters on boats to which had to make the way with tamanskogo coast quite often through a wall of a gun-fire, women - pilots from 46th female regiment of night-intruders, the heavy artillery established on other party of passage supported.

    On the night of December, 7th, 1943 by order of command all who could move, — more than one and a half thousand commandoes, — have gone on break. Having broken off an enemy ring, they for a night have reached Kerch and, having struck unexpectedly from back on fascists, left on Mitridat and adjoining streets. Then even four days fights in back of the enemy conducted, have not been evacuated yet by boats.

    In Geroevsky (so the settlement now is called) in May, 1985 the Museum of history of the Eltigensky landing is opened. On a place of landing of troops the memorial is built. The communal grave of commandoes, a boat sunk by enemy aircraft and lifted now on a pedestal, hospital enter into a memorial complex and operational, traces of entrenchments and an anti-tank ditch also.

    The General attention involves air defence BOAT (type "-…" the project 165, 1942-1943), which at stanovlen on a viewing platform of the Memorial museum of the Eltigensky landing. Now it already represents a historical rarity and interest of experts of all world. Displacement: 18,9 t, razmerenija: 14,6 h 3,6 h 0,9 m, capacity of mechanisms: 115 h.p., speed: 10/4,5 bonds., arms: 1 - 37-mm the tool and 1 - 12,7-mm a machine gun, crew: 13 people

    The Boat has been found out in the summer of 1976 between cape the Ak-breaker and a plait Tuzla. It have restored at factory "Грышт" B.E.Butomy's name also have established as a memorial. It has been constructed in 1942 - 1943 and 6/24/1943 is included in structure of the Volga military flotilla, provided military and economic transportations on Volga. 9/14/1943 the boat has been listed in structure of the Dneprovsky military flotilla, and 10/21/1943 - in structure of the Black Sea fleet. Participated in Kerchensko-Eltigensky landing operation (31.10. - 12/11/1943).

    On a height at settlement Geroevsky it is possible to examine excavation of the antique city of Nimfej.

    Igor Uljankin



    In addition on the given theme:

    Kerch strait, Eni-kale, the Kerchensky fortress
    Coast of Black sea, with. JAkovenkovo, Opuk, cape Chauda
    Coast of sea of Azov, the city of ShChelkino and cape Kazantip
    the Arabatsky arrow

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