Crimea. Rest on Kerch peninsula  
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    the Short review of historical events

    the Most ancient settlements in vicinities of modern Kerch are found out around settlement the Beacon, the age of settlements is defined XVII – XV centuries B.C. .

    Ellinsky colonisation in vicinities of Kerch has begun not later VI centuries B.C. . Gerodot, Strabon and other antique authors constantly connected east part of Kerch peninsula and Kerch strait with kimmerijtsami, ruins of the small city of Kimmerik are found out around mountain Opuk at the Black Sea coast of peninsula.

    Under the certificate of the Homere and other antique authors, on coast Bospora of Kimmerijsky (Kerch strait) the hero of Trojan war Achilles was born. In honour of it local fans of ancient valour spend Ahillovy of Game.

    "I do not know, who and when has divided the world into parts and has given them female names", - wrote in V century to n.e . Gerodot, named "the father of History". But he precisely knew that beyond Bosporom Kimmerijsky Asia begins.

    It from city quay in good weather it is perfectly visible. And here on Tuzla which always was the best kerchenskim a beach, now you will not have a rest. Actually, that is on the divine plan or by nature, the passage always connected two coast so even on kerchensky always tomatoes carried a market from Kuban. On Kuban, by the way, there live descendants of the Zaporozhye Cossacks, and in Kerch the majority Russian, so who with whom and for what should struggle, not clearly. Probably, all the same all together for that borders were not.

    Around passage elliny have based some policies. On the Crimean coast Mirmeky, Tiritaka, Nimfej, Porfmy, Apollonija, the Acre, Kitej are under construction Panticapaeum; on tamanskom – Fanagorija, Germonassa, Kepy, Patrej. Originally policies were independent cities-states, each of which minted the coin.

    Panticapaeum , erected to mountain Mitridat slopes subordinates nearby policies and in 480 year BC becomes capital the Bosporsky kingdom which has united all bosporskie cities and cities on both parties of passage in a single whole. Spartokidy from whom, possibly there was also a well-known Roman gladiator Spartak were one of the well-known imperial dynasties.

    In 107 have flashed BC revolt the Scythian population in which head there was Savmak . This performance has been suppressed by Diofantom, the commander of Pontijsky tsar Mitridata of VI Evpatora. The next years filled with wars of Mitridata with Rome, the capital of the Bosporsky kingdom has been strongly destroyed. But in the first centuries of our era Panticapaeum endures new economic blossoming.

    Definitively antique Kerch as the state capital, stops the existence in 70th years of IV century , during time gunnskogo invasions . Then the city repeatedly passes from hand to hand: that tjurkojazychnyh tribes and the people, Byzantines. Accordingly, its names vary also: Turkic Karsha or Charsha, Arabian Karh (on sense – the market).

    In VI century the Mediterranean settlements revive Byzantines . Under the decision of Byzantian emperor Justiniana the garrison here has been directed, and building of the fortress which have received the name of Bospor has begun. The city becomes the diocese centre, and the culture of local population develops under the influence of the Greek Orthodoxy.

    Appeared on passage coast Slavs to IX – X centuries represented already big force, becoming unique owners of Northern Black Sea Coast. With formation of a specific Tmutarakansky princedom the city named Korchevom, plays the important role as sea gate of the Kiev Russia. On the bank of Kerch strait there are Italian feudal lords – Venetians and genoeses, and since 1318 the city carries the name of Cherkio or Sacred John's Port (by name of John Predtechi's churches – one of the most ancient in the CIS Christian temples).

    After capture in 1475 year of all Genoa colonies Turkey has resolved natives of Italy to live in villages on Kerch peninsula. Up to the Soviet power communities of genoeses were numerous and kept communication with mother country, sending there youth for trading or sea formation. At Stalin with them struggled as with colonizers. One and a half ten villages in the different ends of peninsula have become deserted, but interesting ruins have remained here and there. Cemeteries of ancestors are visited by tourists from Italy.

    The city becomes for many long years the major strategic knot of Ottoman empire supervising extensive region on a joint of Crimea and caucasus, the Azov and Black seas.

    In 1703 to year under the project of the French engineers the fortress is restored and simultaneously erected new a fortress of Eni-Kale , closing pass through passage. It has been more favourably located for opposition to Russian armies, than old, being in depth of the Kerchensky bay. In area Eni-Kale was and tmutarakanskoe a site of ancient settlement : in 1872 here at excavation has been found lead the press of Ratibora , the deputy of the Grand duke of Kiev Vsevoloda in Tmutarakani. The fortress was grasped repeatedly by Russian armies during numerous wars with Turkey, but already with 1774 year Kerch passes to Russia . In 1790 to year in Kerch strait there is a fight in which Russian fleet under command of an admiral F.F.Ushakov gains a brilliant victory over Turks.

    Having lost after joining of Crimea to Russia the strategic value, Kerch endures decline. In the XIX-th century beginning here lives only 250 inhabitants. There is nothing surprising therefore that in 1820 to year the city has left at Alexander Sergeevicha Pushkin (travelling together with Raevsky) only disappointments.

    Opening in 1880 years huge zhelezorudnogo deposits , building of the railway and deepening in 1908 of Kerch strait transform a city in the large industrial centre . In 1939 in Kerch lives already more than 100 thousand inhabitants.

    In years the Great Patriotic War the front line passed through Kerch three times. After deviation the part of the Soviet soldiers together with guerrillas leaves in Adzhimushkajsky stone quarries, whence conducts battle since May till the end of October, 1942, overcoming a cold, hunger, shortage of an ammunition and gas attacks.

    In post-war years the city quickly increased heavy and the food-processing industry, tremendous successes have been reached in shipbuilding – for the first time in Soviet Union manufacture of super-tankers (factory "Having filled in") has been mastered. Environmental problems collected also. Now with a stop of the majority of manufactures, air in a city became much purer, but shortage of investments and the general conditions of ruin disturb to dynamical development of tourism, resort treatment and mass rest. For all it the city and region have the richest possibilities.

    Igor Uljankin



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